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/ Royal graves at the site of Yinxu.
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During the final two centuries of the Shang Dynasty (1600-1046 BCE) in China, thousands of people were sacrificed at the state capital ofYinxu. Some were dispatched with great fanfare, buried with rich grave goods, while others appearto have been sacrificed with extreme prejudice and mutilated after death. Now, Santa Monica striped sneakers White Dsquared2 Latest Cheap Price Wholesale Price Online Cheap Prices Reliable Clearance Eastbay mzIAJL7p
sheds some light on these victims. Simon Fraser University bioarchaeologist Christina Cheung and her colleagues reconstructed these ancient people's' lives by discovering what they ate and when, based on chemical signatures left in their bones.

Human sacrifice was a common ritual among the people of almost every ancient civilization, from China and Europe, to Mesopotamia and the Americas. Though archaeologists have analyzed the graves of these sacrifices, they have many questions about the victims' lives. Were they revered and celebrated before death, or were they outcasts? Were they prisoners from far away, or were they the sons and daughters of their executioners?

Cheung and her team answered a number of these questions with a chemical analysis of the bones of 68 sacrificial victims at Yinxu, which werecomparedwith the bones of 39 locals. All of the victims were male, and most were young.

Sacrifices were buried in the royal cemetery across the Huan River from the palace. Archaeologists have been excavating at this site for almost a century, uncovering more than 3,000 sacrificial victims who appear to have been dispatched in groups of 50 to 350 at a time. In a recent paper for Journal of Anthropological Archaeology , Cheung and colleagues describe two distinct types of sacrificial victim.

In Shang, China, there were two main types of human sacrifice: rensheng (人牲) and renxun (人殉). Rensheng literally means "human offerings," and these victims were often buried in large groups, mutilated, and with little to no grave goods. Renxun can be loosely translated as "human companions." They were often buried with elaborate grave goods, individual coffins, and even their own rensheng.

Archaeologists typically find rensheng in mass graves that they divide into "skull pits," "headless pits," and "mutilated pits." As you might guess, these are pits full of skulls, decapitated bodies, and partial bodies, respectively. Unfortunately it's often hard to tell the difference between rensheng and renxun because there has been so much looting and excavation at Yinxu. The practice of mutilating the bodies also makes it difficult for scientists to match skulls with bodies, so they relied entirely on skeletons (headless or otherwise) to identify individuals.

To convert the estimated late summer biomass to the average annual biomass, the ratio of the landings per unit of effort (lpue) in the brown shrimp fisheries in late summer to the mean annual lpue was used ( ICES, 2015 ) The lpue (used here as a proxy for biomass) measured at the time of the survey is assumed to be 1.6-fold ( SD = 22%) higher than the average annual biomass.

ˉ B = c . f . nareas n = 1 [ L max i = 50 ( c p s m i A n a L b i S i ) ]

According to Allen (1971) , biomass B can be converted to production P if total mortality ( Z ) is known, according to Z = P / B ; therefore, P = Z · B . Total mortality was calculated based on ( Hufnagl et al. , 2012 ) and updated for the years after 2006 with updated values for the years 2007–2011 ( Temming and Hufnagl, 2015 ).

Uncertainties in all individual estimates were taken into account, resulting in a minimum and maximum total production estimate. For the swept-area estimate, 95% confidence limits of the regression were used; for catch efficiency, we used an uncertainty of ±10% (27–47%); for Z , we used the lowest and highest of four methods ( Beverton and Holt, 1956 ; Ssentongo and Larkin, 1973 ; Jones and van Zalinge, 1981 ; Pauly, 1983 ) to calculate mortality ( Hufnagl et al. , 2012 ).

Fishing mortality ( F ) was then estimated as C/B , with C = total annual catch and B = total annual biomass production and contrasted with the estimate made by Temming and Hufnagl (2015) .

All tested factors (area, depth class, and year) were significant in the linear model predicting the total swept-area estimate (all p < 0.001; area: F 22, 14086 = 40.5; depth class: F 1, 14086 = 316.3; year: F 44, 14086 = 20.3), and the model explained 14.3% of the variation. The total swept-area estimate at the time of the survey for small shrimp (30–49 mm) was in the same order of magnitude as that of the commercial size (≥50 mm) and was 7000–38 000 tonnes ( Figure 2 ). The swept-area estimate at the time of the survey for commercial size varied between 4000 and 22 000 tonnes, with a clear peak period between 1979 and 1987. Biomass in the 1990s was relatively low, with a slight increase since the early 2000s. The subdivision of biomass estimates over depth zones clearly indicates the importance of the shallower areas for brown shrimp, with a declining proportion of the total estimate in the deeper areas ( Figure 3 ). Despite higher densities, the Wadden Sea and the Wester- and Oosterschelde contribute ca. one-half of that of the coastal areas to the overall biomass due to the smaller surface area.

Another limitation is that the opportunistic nature of this investigation did not allow detailed record-keeping on the amount of time taken to identify each additional relevant item. However cluster searching should not be considered an alternative to topic-based searching. Rather the CLUSTER procedures are supplementary, complementing deficiencies or omissions from topic-based searches. Several factors will determine whether it is cost-effective to utilize the CLUSTER procedures. Considerations include the complexity of the research question, the complexity of the intervention, the prior conceptual development of a topic, the precision of the search terms and the overarching purpose of the synthesis. Indeed a searcher could briefly “triage” the topic using only the procedures associated with the key pearl citation to predict the likely value of the CLUSTER procedures. The searcher would retrieve the full text of the key pearl citation and identify (i) any references by the authors, (ii) any citations to theory and (iii) any citations to related projects. At the very least an abbreviated CLUSTER procedure would offer a validation check for the topic-based search. A further citation search on Google Scholar could speedily establish how influential the key pearl citation has been. The review team could then make an informed judgement on the added value of performing the full CLUSTER procedures from Table Supply Sale Online DESIGN mix and match crinkle high leg hipster bikini bot Black Asos Cheap Sale For Sale Best Place For Sale Offer Get To Buy Online oAUVHFJC
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Cluster searching offers a greater potential contribution to realist reviews, qualitative syntheses of complex interventions or those reviews where implementation-related issues figure prominently. Further investigation is required to establish whether capture of additional reports merely signals duplicate publication or whether it yields additional data [ 71 ]. Even where “salami-slicing” has occurred, if there is minimal overlap, additional reports will still yield useful data, not previously available to the review. Our experience revealed that, rather than representing “rehashes” of peer-reviewed journals, book chapters may indeed prove valuable. For example one book chapter identified particular flaws in viewing “men with HIV” as a homogenous group [ Mono Lace Rose Print Ruched Tanga Bikini Bottom Mono lace rose Asos Cheap Price Low Shipping Fee yVVw6Z1z76
], flagging the existence of significant subgroups and tensions between members of each. Nevertheless further work needs to examine the relative contribution of each source of richness to a final synthesis and our understanding of the intervention, working outwards from the sibling studies to more distantly related studies. A qualitative sensitivity analysis, would demonstrate the extent to which the full CLUSTER approach might be considered worthwhile [ Gazelle Super Trainers In Blue With Dark Gum Blue adidas Originals Discount Find Great Cheap Sale Lowest Price aDXeVRq
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A further consideration is that an approach that essentially recreates a network or web of related studies on the basis of “aboutness” or “relatedness” runs the risk of missing alternative, but relevant, hypotheses, research traditions and theories. To a certain extent this is not a limitation of cluster searching per se but will depend on how well included studies are reported and interpreted. Procedures that optimize identification of the “disconfirming case” will, by analogy, to be of relevance here [ 73 ]. In addition, techniques associated with qualitative synthesis require reviewers to attempt to refute them with alternative interpretations. One particular strength of the CLUSTER method relates to the fact that theories are identified “forensically”, from the actual evidence base for a project rather than being “magicked” via external interpretation from the review team. Furthermore the CLUSTER method provides three opportunities to identify competing theories within such a cluster; from reports from the project itself, from related projects and from overview papers reviewing several related projects. The risk of only partial theoretical insights, although undeniably present, is arguably reduced in contrast to serendipitous methods for identifying theory.

The past decade has seen a surge in research related to the use of MS for protein quantification. In this approach, 1 or more peptides derived by enzymatic digestion of a target protein are measured by MS. Detection of the peptide(s) and their abundance in the sample are surrogates for the presence and the amount of the target protein in the sample. The technology of choice for detecting and quantifying peptides in complex biological samples and biofluids is MRM-MS ( 23 )( 2018 New Online Strasacco Caprona Rov SlipOn Shoes Marsèll Clearance Store Cheap Online iXyNa
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)( 28 ). Unfortunately, the lessons learned by the small-molecule MS community [namely that the use of liquid chromatography–MS/MS (LC-MS/MS) methods is by itself no guarantee of either specificity or quantitative accuracy] and the methods this community has developed to cope with these analytical problems are only slowly being appreciated by proteomics scientists and integrated into practice. The potential for false-positive identification and inaccurate quantification of peptides in highly complex samples such as plasma, tissue lysate, or cell lines is likely to be substantially greater than for small-molecule analysis of these same biological matrices. In small-molecule MRM-MS analyses of biofluids, tissues, and cell lines, proteins are removed by precipitation before analysis, thereby eliminating a huge potential source of interference. In proteomics, not only do we have to contend with the already highly complex and wide concentration range of the protein complement of the sample, but we must also be able to assay for peptides derived from these proteins after enzymatic digestion, which increases the complexity of the sample by another 50- to 100-fold ( 29 ).

Inaccurate quantification in peptide MRM-MS has many sources, including false-positive identification, suppression caused by matrix components, interference in 1 or more of the monitored product ion transitions, poor chromatography, MS instrument–related signal attenuation and saturation, and errors caused by the software used for peak detection and integration. We describe common sources of false-positive identifications and inaccurate quantification in peptide MRM-MS and present methods and protocols to detect and prevent such problems. Although many algorithms and methods have been devised to accelerate and simplify the design and implementation of MRM-based experiments in proteomics ( Original For Sale 8914146 Mens Combat Boots Bata Sale Online Shopping Sale Amazing Price 7NoD1
)( 31 ), interferences in the MRM signals are not currently addressed and can drastically undermine the results obtained from quantitative experiments. Interferences are usually detected by painstaking and subjective manual examination of the raw data ( 32 ). Protein quantification for candidate biomarker verification in clinical proteomics ( 21 )( 25 )( 26 )( 33 ) and the application of MRM-MS methods for basic biological studies in model systems such as yeast ( 6 Waterproof Plain Toe Boots Brown Timberland Cheap Sale 2018 New Purchase Cheap Price Cheap Release Dates Szp2O
) increasingly require the ability to assay many tens to hundreds of proteins. Clearly, manual inspection of such data is no longer possible or desired. We have developed a new algorithm for automated detection of inaccurate and imprecise transitions (AuDIT) in the application of MRM-MS for quantitative analyses of peptides. This algorithm can be used both in methods development and in routine testing of patient samples.

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